Courses Catalogue

Syllabus of the course: Electron Microscopy

In this web page we provide the syllabus of the course Electron Microscopy, offered by the Department of Physics.
The list of the courses offered during the current accademic year is available here.
The list of all courses offered by the Department of Physics is available here.

ProgramΤuesday, 16:00-18:00, Room 1
Friday, 11:00-13:00, Room 1
Web page
Goal of the courseThis course on Electron Microscopy (E/M) aims to introduce students of the Physics and other departments to the basic concepts of E/M starting from basic principles of Geometric and Physical optics and extending to study and operational principles of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), including pumping and vacuum procedures and fundamentals of image formation. It also covers the subjects of qualitative and quantitative microanalysis (ZAF method) and electron diffraction. The class is concluding with an “on-hands” lab practice of students on techniques for the preparation and observation/analysis of various inorganic and organic samples.
SyllabusGeneral principles: Geometric and Physical optics- Imaging-Lenses- Simple/ stereoscopic microscope- Apertures- Resolution/Airy disc.
The evolution of microscope: E/M radiation-Electron waves-X-ray microscope- magnetic lenses.
Existing types of E/Ms: TEM-TEM/R-STEM-SEM-EXMA
Fluorescence: Electron emission and ion emission Microscopes
Principles of magnetic lenses: Structure- Hysteresis- Faults- Depth of focus-Depth of field Imaging and contrast: Sample preparation- observation processing- diffraction-Mass density- absorption-apertures- noise
Vacuum principles: Basic concepts- Theory of gas motion-application to pumping systems-operation of pumps- vacuum formation techniques- vacuum theory and technology- instrumentation- designing a vacuum system
The TEM: Introductory principles- apertures- lenses- imaging system
Cristalline structure: Bravais structures- Miller indexes- defects
Electron Diffraction: Bragg’s law, Imaging and analyses- crystalline structures- structural and planar defects- thin films
The SEM: Introductory- sample preparation- imaging and analysis processing- phase contrast- EBIC method- applications Introduction to Electron Microanalysis: X-rays production, spectrum, characteristic lines, analysis methods- topography- detection systems- EDS,WDS- imaging and related problems
Qualitative and Quantitative microanalysis: ZAF method- Energy spectra- Kz ,Ka, Kf coefficients Applications: Lab exercises / practical “on-hand” experience on sample preparation (use of optical stereoscope/ plasma deposition) and the use of SEM / TEM
Bibliography«Practical Electron Microscopy» – V.E. Cosselt, Butterworths, London (1951)
«Introduction to Electron Microscopy» - C.E. Hall, McGraw – Hill, New York, (1966)
«A Beginner’s Handbook in Electron Microscopy» – B.S. Waekley, Churchill, Living – stone, Ediburgh, UK (1972)
«Prinnciples and Techniques of Electron Microscopy» – M.A. Hayat, v.1. Van Nostrand- Reinhold, New York and London, (1974)
«Practical Electron Microscopy» – G.A. Meck, J. Willey & Sons, UK (1981)

University of Crete - Department of Physics - P.O Box 2208 - GR-71003 Heraklion, Greece
phone: +30 2810 394300 - fax: +30 2810 394301